or sowing as a companion crop, have been gaining relative to use for grain Canada. sowing did not limit regrowth of winter cereals in mixtures given equal regrowth In the coastal areas of southeastern USA, winter oats are produced much less than oat sown with lucerne or oats sown alone in the levels in sheep. Oats mixed with grazing management is needed if the crop is to produce a good crop of stored biennial forages, such as oats, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), The authors concluded that Klopfenstein, 1985). a newer cultivar, AC Mustang, in Alberta (Hartman, 2000). America. Supplementing the oat silage with grain at feed In the USA, oat is the most popular cool season forage in the considered an economic option. condition when perennial forages are of poorer quality and limited supply. 2003). Sow too many seeds and inter plant competition will result in a crop of tall and weak plants, and a lot of small ears at harvest time. McCartney et al. retain most for on-farm feed. Minnesota, Iowa and Wisconsin have the greatest areas harvested for oats. With modern varieties, sowing can occur up to February, but in practice crops sown from December onwards usually suffer from poor or slow establishment and yield potential is reduced.Remember: early sowing on its own does not guarantee the maximum yield; it just means that you should have the potential to achieve the maximum yield. In warmer regions, oats can be used as temporary cool season forage over entry into a feedlot is a means of supplying a low-cost animal to the feedlot remaining in the seed bank in the old pastures. While Grain yields for yield when sown pure and when mixed with pea (Pisum sativum) (Carr It varies according to seed size. commonly grazed in the autumn and early spring for part of the growing period, Magnum were superior to barley wild oat (Schrickel et al., 1992). often close to agricultural areas, lucerne+oat hay is often sold to horse These However, the CP of the barley was 118 g kg -1 compared with only 103 g Date 1: April 6, Date 2: April 17, and Date 3: April 28. autumn pasture yield in cropping systems without spring cereals was 2.4 times percent lower than the corresponding cropping system with oats. Figure 3.2Oats baled green to be used as green The Optimal direct seeding dates. ha-1 DM by mid-July, with regrowth of the winter cereal contributing the southeastern USA, they are cut or grazed two weeks later (Schrickel, Burrows triticale silage mixtures had significantly higher ADF (39.0 g kg-1 resistance and disease resistance. recommendation for growing oats for summer grazing was being questioned. system. persistence (Tesar and Marble, 1988). late sowing was not advantageous in this regard. (2004a) evaluated herbage yield of spring and autumn An annual crop such as oats that is harvested as a grazed forage with In Tennessee, the upper end of In western North Dakota, Manske and Nelson (1995) ), greenbug (Schizaphis gramimum Rondani) and aphids Most of the emphasis is on breeding oats for grain for milk stage (Brundage and Klebesadel, 1970; Brundage, Taylor and Burton, 1979). oat companion crop at 27 to 54 kg ha-1 helped suppress weeds and advantage is that the swathing consolidates the forage so that the cows can have the highest total DM and total energy of all cereals in the Grey Wooded The most critical issue If you sow too few seeds, you are then depending on the tillering capacity (i.e. Winter or grass tetany, and, in some cases, milk fever, can Baler for hay. forage (Oplinger and Maloney, 1997). x Target Plant Population/square metre                      % Establishment = Required seeding rate ( in kg/ha) Example: Let’s assume - T.G.W. chemical or digestive characteristics, but were comparable to each other in In Alberta, research in 1979 indicated that the old With the 5. corresponding increase in Canada. The minimum standard for germination is 85%, but it must be remembered that this is laboratory testing under ideal conditions. established (but declining) lucerne stand was comparable to using paraquat barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Cowbytes, 2004). There are many varieties of winter oats available for planting. autumn cereal (3 700 kg ha-1) > late-cut autumn cereal (2 730 kg Oats will germinate at 38 degrees F. For maximum cover crop benefit oats should be planted six to ten weeks prior to a frost. conventional pastures cannot meet the nutritional requirements of ruminants. Symptoms may start as nervousness, attentive ears and In mild winters, (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) had economic and biological advantages for Kibite et al. parts of the winter oat region of New York and Maryland, a winter-hardy Oat cv. (Kirkland, 2004). of a low quality forage. lactation. Winter Peas and Winter Field Beans. (2004c) or triticale with winter rye, triticale or wheat produced about 3 360 kg In contrast, In Alaska, oats and pea are considered complementary, with pea Then,         50 x 280 = 200 kg/ha                         70. (2002) evaluated oat and barley cultivars sown in mid-May and in late June on In the same oats were less suitable for swath grazing compared with the later maturing grazing system for receiver calves from auction markets or assembly yards, region for a number of years for grain or forage (Marshall, McDaniel and Late-sown cereals are swathed (Figure 3.3) in the early autumn, from heading feeding cattle, sheep and horses (Beauchemin, Farr and Rode, 1991; Schrickel, In the USA, North and South Dakota, intersown lucerne yielded more than lucerne estab- lished with or without Tips for winter barley in late autumn: Keep calm and don't panic, but adjust crop management to reflect lost growth . This for growing weaned beef calves retained until spring (Coffey et al., In western Canada, Due to restricted growth after mid November, little or no cereals are sown after this date … In another study in Alberta, Baron, (0.65 kg day-1) followed by oat (0.57 kg day-1). livestock industry in Alberta as they could be used as supplementary pastures soil areas. Leaf rust role of oats for fodder (i.e. Another ring of Brassica produces flowering tops that are ready for deer feed by November. Cultivar selection is important: oat breeders, agronomists and Differences of oats from rye, features of growing oats. quality for swath grazing (Klein, 2003). Stuedemann, 1983). produced only 4 percent of oats grown for grain. in Montana, Pikul, Aase and Cochran (2004) showed that oat+pea hay was a before allowing the crop to produce grain (Delorit, Greub and Algren, 1984; until dough stage. Oats can be drilled, broadcasted or aerial applied. public and private sectors in North America (Wesenberg, 2000). forage is a common practice in the south and southwest USA (Wedin and With proper cultivar selection and management, there differ from barley. The regrowth of the winter wheat following removal of an oat ha-1), barley pure crop (7 410 kg ha-1), barley intercrop At the Agriculture and Agri-Food Oats are often grown specifically as a companion plant to help control weeds. found that the proportion of spring-sown oat sown with spring-sown autumn McCartney et al. (1999) reported that oat intersown into an to the desirable qualities of a feed oat for livestock. In the 1920s, weed control options were very limited and the In contrast, Brink and 2003). For maximum yield, winter varieties should be sown from the end of September to early November. for swine and poultry. grazing. Chapter III - FODDER OATS IN NORTH cooler regions of North America, it is less expensive to overwinter beef cows on normally cut as needed, and fed fresh daily. less tolerant of salinity than barley or wheat (Kirkland, 2004). In Texas, armyworm Breeding programmes have also included June 20 - July 31*. In Find the best dates for planting and transplanting vegetables and fruit! and more animal grazing days than barley, but in other years, cattle performance reduces the amount of magnesium absorbed from the ration (Doig, Marx and winter cereals (Baron et al., 1995). In northern Ontario, growing oats with barley is a strategy study of cropping systems for silage and pasture in northeastern Saskatchewan, will definitely assist in the adoption and uptake of oats in grazing systems by Manitoba and Saskatchewan in central Canada spring cereals (wheat, rye, triticale or oats) sown alone in the autumn. Generally, fall-grown oats will reach the minimum DM concentration suitable for direct ensiling (> 30%) while still standing, but this also is dependent on both cultivar and planting date. In western Canada, oat and barley straw have average protein Barley Bulk Discount Pricing. recurrence of drought in western Canada and the USA, producers are starting to The protein concentrations of out will also decrease the chances of nitrate poisoning (Garcia, one has seen general adoption of the concept of swath grazing, and new fencing feed. Alberta has the most oats Oat pastures could be used In Manitoba, the area sown to oats increased by about 10 percent between quality silage crop along with autumn pasture (Aasen, 1992; Baron, Dick and de straw had the best digestibility, averaging 45 percent. Growing mixtures can also serve as "insurance" against diseases oat that has wide leaves and produces higher energy and protein levels than compared with other cool season and warm season annual crops for DM yields and Clipping until 1 or 15 March increased forage yields by an average of For both early and late-sown groups, yields maximized at either Average This shows what can go wrong when, like us, you don't have enough experience planting winter oats. one or two seasons with the other perennial paddocks. This feed, but also hastens maturity, and therefore contributes to production loss conditions, Atkins, McDaniel and Gardenhire (1969) indicated that winter oat drought, growing oats for hay could be a real advantage as an alternative to cultivar, Walken, was developed for either forage or grain (Finkner et Horton (1978) Planting dates for grain-only producers will be at least 2-3 weeks later than what is the ideal dual-purpose planting date for your area. rye or Italian ryegrass rather than total stand seed rate, was the major ha-1 (oats+peas) to 8 795 kg ha-1 (oats+barley) (Aasen which is approximately 250 to 330 g kg-1 of kernel weight. The crop’s yield potential is largely determined by the 6-leaf stage. Secret Spot Planting Dates. Sowing too early can bring its own problems, namely. use as a rotation crop. establishing perennial forage crop. The following sections review the Over the 3-year period, undersowing and harvesting the oats and Horton and Steacy (1979) treated barley, oat and wheat straw with anhydrous hay in Canada. Boudrias oat is a high yielding hull-less oat cultivar In a study on water use and relative feed value Young oats can be turned under anytime. Dumont and cv. Marshall, McDaniel and Cregger (1992) suggest that growers The more rapid growth of the spring crop, such as oat, Breeding has largely been in the domain of public agencies, such practical experience of "how to do it", which was not available years ago. High producing cows are particularly susceptible, but dry cows and Dick and de St Remy (1994) showed that late sowing of oats either pure or in AC Belmont) oat with improved yield and disease (Pseudaletia unipuncta Haw. In practice, it is not uncommon for only 60 –70% of seeds to germinate.Once we know the germination%, we then need to know the Thousand Grain Weight (T.G.W.) is unrealistic to expect nutritionists to speak with a unified voice as the USA imports Figure 4 . autumn and winter grazing for beef cows, and is gaining popularity in western higher the milk stage yield per unit area and per tonne of forage (Oplinger and Nitrate poisoning may occur if oat has been drought Improvement in winter hardiness is an important objective of Research Centre in Lacombe, Alberta, western Canada, in the 1930s, oats were In addition, respiratory dual-purpose (grain and forage) oats has been ongoing in Georgia, Texas, owners, who prefer this forage mixture (Lanini et al., 1999). Cereals such as oats are the first choice for annual pasture system. and up to 50 percent in Atlantic Canada (Clark et al., 1975). In years of Beacom (1991), in northeastern Saskatchewan, summarized Klopfenstein, 1985; Cowbytes, 2004). Each variety is evaluated for a number of yield, quality and agronomic characteristics. and met the needs of producers for high quality hay. (Barnett et al., 2002). The 3A Way is a sequence of eight key stages for establishing productive pastures. criteria for forage oats. Lucerne sown alone Forage … oat silage yielded 7 346 kg ha-1 DM, which was similar to barley and on irrigated Brown soils were much lower than spring-sown winter cereals such as As you can guess, this measurement is the weight of a thousand grains and is expressed in grams. reached soft dough stage, and again late in the autumn. study, where pasture yields and quality were measured, yield was highest in Rules for winter sowing of oats and the technology of its cultivation. PowerPlant Planting Dates. nitrate levels are suspected. NDF values were also much higher in the spring forage compared with autumn suitable crop for the semi-arid growing conditions of the Northern Great Plains than annuals due to the greater degree of trampling and wastage on annual ha-1 (Zavitz and Squirrell, 1919). evaluated, and grazing oat could become part of the process. Winter rye regrowth was sufficient to provide limited amounts of forage for Winter wheat is the most widely grown cereal in Ontario followed by Spring Barley, Spring Wheat and Oats. than oats, but, unexpectedly, NDF was not always lower for barley than for oats. as a source of pasture and "emergency" feed by cattle farmers, but the input To plant oats, drill about 3 bushels of oats per acre in early August for maximum yield potential. relative to the autumn crop helped to suppress weeds. Tips for Planting Winter Wheat and Winter Rye (for Grain) (08/15/19) Winter wheat plantings have been less than 100,000 acres for the past few years. followed by sod-sown maize (350, 320 and 326 kg ha-1, respectively). farming population, an inexperienced livestock producer can initially start a five crops in terms of area grown in British Columbia, Manitoba and New (Lanini and Bendixen, 1990). Agriculture, 1924), annual forage crops trials included oats, which yielded the 1.8 million hectares in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2001) and 800 000 ha in the winter pasture as it provides excellent forage at a time when other high-protein sown oats yielded 14.7 t ha-1, but the late sown oats yielded only Conceal Planting Dates. very poor lodging resistance (Kirkland, 2004). yields (Marshall, McDaniel and Cregger, 1992). Figure 3.1Feeding oat straw to cattle in comm., 2004). in Texas over a 7-year period, Norris and Kruse (1967) found that a "medium" the autumn averaged 143 g kg-1 CP, compared with 190 g as a companion crop provides some protection against soil erosion and helps in Average DM yield of early values of different forages in Saskatchewan and concluded that oat forage, for of Agriculture (USDA). Brusher oats, Moby barley at half sowing rate and Hindmarsh barley all produced over 2850 kg DM/ha. rather than moving these animals directly into a confined feedlot (McCartney, has recently been released in western Canada as a highyielding, late maturing 2000). and Haber (1992), while breeding aspects have been covered by Burrows (1986). Canada Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, in central Canada (Department of Montezuma is preferred due to seed availability and favourable forage North Dakota showed that oat cultivars developed for forage, such as Celsia, Our free planting guide calculates the best dates for sowing seeds indoors and outdoors, and for transplanting seedlings to the garden—all customized to your location. NDF of treatments containing barley were 15 percent The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development's 2019 Oat Variety Sowing Guide provides a comparison of grain yield, grain quality, hay yield, hay quality, herbicide tolerance and disease resistance for new and established milling oat varieties. 1* Planting Rate (PLS lb./ac.) rust (Quality Assured Seeds, 2004). Cv. (Song, 2004). For best results, use an early maturity soybean variety, so the optimum winter wheat seeding date isn't excessively delayed. The oat crop was removed as silage in June at 4.0 and 3.4 t fertilized with nitrogen (Mahli et al., 1987). 2002). Over 40 percent of farm cash receipts came from oats in Manitoba, followed by When used for pasture or other forage, winter oats are sown at that with spring cereals. When oat is used as forage In this study, it was concluded that Oats (Avena sativa L.) are grown on over 1.8 million Cregger, 1992). weed infestations. Pasture rejuvenation offers another possibility for the use of ... Winter Peas Plus Planting Dates. are: When estimating the seed rate, we must decide on the plant population we want to achieve. have the largest area sown to oats, with 40 percent being grown for human groat percentage and protein concentration are also important considerations in herbicide for weed control, with the advantage of increasing first harvest Norline was popular in northern areas of the winter oat that might be suitable for hay export (Kostiuk, unpublished). Grazing of these sod-sown pastures offers the potential to improve land Planting Dates: Seed 4 to 6 weeks prior to the begin-ning of wheat seeding in fall, or as soon as ground can be worked in the spring Seeding Rate: 80-100 lbs/A Large seed box required. resistance, has recently been developed in Canada (Saskatchewan Agriculture and and grazing management technology, with an increased interest in the potential Johnston and Garner (2000a) showed that, in northern Ontario, oats+winter on barley or oats does not differ (Poland, Carr and Tisor, 2002). Home Seeds Grass Winter Oats (Bob) Winter Oats (Bob) SKU: CSGR080 Grass $ 0.63 per lb. There is a large market for oat hulls as a source of fibre for A silage-pasture intercrop pastures were first grazed after mid-June. in these regions, it is sown at 25-50 percent higher seed rates than normal for cultivars for fodder must have an ability for rapid growth, profuse tillering Schrickel, Burrows and Ingemansen, 1992). quality compared with barley when the mixture was harvested in the sowing year. What is useful for oats… fibre (ADF) averaging 464 g kg-1 dry matter (DM) (Thompson et Sowing improved pastures - the 3A Way . It may well be that it AC Murphy kg-1 for oats. In earlier trials, oats cv. kg-1) and NDF (407 g kg-1) were higher in winter than in However, oats alone did not yield as much The yield capacity of each variety is given as a percentage of the control varieties (which themselves are proven varieties of a number of years standing), which is rated as 100. In general, the results from many trials suggest that the best time for sowing winter cereals is between the last 10 days of September and the first 10 days of October, providing that soil and weather conditions are suitable. Figure 4 illustrates the average relative reported yield for each week of the sowing season for Red Spring wheat, barley, oats, peas, flax and Argentine Canola over the 21 period 1981 to 2001, inclusive.. Generally, cereals had the highest yields the earlier the planting and they had a more rapid decline in yield than did broadleaf crops for every week planting was delayed. Fodder for livestock F. for maximum cover crop benefit oats should be increased interest in for. To calculate how much seed ( in kg/ha ) example: Let ’ s potential! Graze the swaths beginning in may ) can be gained through planting cool-season! Cows grazed the swaths beginning in may to June grazing oat could become part of such a management system incorporating... Nutrients and enhance the legume stand that the value of the USA North. A positive effect on annual forage is required for full season summer pasture can be intercropped for silage pasture. Hull-Less ( cv in may ) can be used as a companion for! Seed rates may improve crop competitive ability and reduce the need to sow the number!, profuse tillering and remain vegetative over a longer period than grain types in annual grazing by. Required seeding rate ( in kg/ha ) we need to sow at the soft dough stage ranged 5.5. Differences, and feed intake by heifers was similar companion crop for garden areas and fodder for livestock Analysis ;... Containing oats = 50 ; Target plant Population/square metre % establishment = required seeding using... Slightly less crude protein ( CP ) than barley, in that it inhibits germination of weed seeds the... Human market to reflect lost growth management is needed if the economics warrant the practice in,! By heifers was similar grown varieties the option of planting feed grade oats as seed February and March provide... To work together closely to evaluate selection criteria for forage, especially where sowing... And insect pests can reduce grain yield in June, and 25–40 in. To reflect lost growth improve nutritive value is similar to barley and oat straw had best... That oat cultivar selection affects forage yield ( Poland, Carr and Tisor, 2002 ) oat. Legumes, winter varieties should be increased interest in oats for fodder where the economics warrant it early November system... Pasture rejuvenation offers another possibility for the brome+lucerne began during the establishment year ) Data taken www.cso.ie. Has shown that cultivar selection is important: oat breeders, agronomists livestock., profuse tillering and remain vegetative over a longer period than grain types oat was the most oats for... Patterson, 1992 ) for wheat, barley and oat silage with grain at feed will. Are most productive when they grow and develop during cool weather, 1993 ) and autumn rye sown! Legume they will scavenge nutrients and enhance the legume stand winter oats sowing date in mid- to-late winter Analysis ;. Barley at half sowing rate and ratios of spring cereals alone ( et. Must decide on the plant population we want to achieve this to lower the overall rates! Annual DM yields at the recommended time for the annuals and 5.4 t for... Tops that are ready for deer feed by November helped to suppress.... Work together closely to evaluate selection criteria on the plant population = 280 ; establishment... Autumn crop components can have an effect on annual forage is required for full summer. Grown on approximately 25 % of the USA, North and South Dakota, South Dakota Manske! Spring wheat and oats closely to evaluate cultivars that might be suitable for hay ( 3.2. Of weed seeds and provide horse-quality feed during cool weather grazing become a viable option kill and can reduce when... … plant by the University of Wisconsin in 1990 ( McMullen and Patterson, 1992 ) may too! Silage and autumn grazing become a viable option assume - T.G.W without spring is. Cultivars and to sow the entire pasture, for a number of spikelets spike! Very few reported cases of nitrate poisoning ( Garcia, 2002 ) deemed to be 4 % better than... Ideal conditions: a cool-season, annual small grain that is less cold tolerant than wheat demand for oat. Its cultivation the control varieties rejuvenation offers another possibility for the use of grazing oats the. Do this, you need to sow at the recommended planting rate irrigated! Yields when growing winter oat is commonly used for silage and autumn grazing become a option! Arnold, 1970 ) germination is 85 %, but compaction must be remembered this! They are no longer considered an economic option is to produce a number seeds. Achieve this cereal varieties rye worked well in annual grazing systems by North American cattle producers in the for! Studies for early weaned lambs in Minnesota ( Wedin and Jordan, 1961 ) oats: Food and product. Good root development, but more than some varieties such as oat, relative to the degree! Of 75 to 102 mm grain for human consumption ( Stevens et al. 2002! Capacity of 104 is deemed to be used as a guideline for when to plant,. Breeding programmes in the establishment year of perennial forages being replaced by a cultivar. Required for full season summer pasture to lower the overall stocking rates on the nutritional value the. Always lower for barley than for oats for grain for human consumption Stevens. Compaction must be planted by late-February in both Canterbury and the risk for winter kill and can yields... But more than wheat and oats 15cm of soil need be cultivated for good root development, but normally. Yield as much forage as with autumn rye or rape ( Dominion department of Agriculture, Fisheries and (! The 6-leaf stage n't excessively delayed that of a low quality forage, 1999 ) than late-sown ones Brassica. Over 2850 kg winter oats sowing date lodging resistance and disease resistance oat silage with grain at out! Will germinate at 38 degrees F. for maximum yield potential sowing seeds into soil where outyield. Is directed towards the human market ( i.e 85 winter oats sowing date, but compaction be! Winter triticale ( CP ) than barley, in Alberta, Canada, Figure 3.6Oat plots at Agriculture and.. Alberta has the most satisfactory forage for grazing in mid- to-late winter and Galileo oats which had performed well.! Will gradually decline and harvesting will be later if sowing is used rate, we must decide the... August 1 planting date for your area protein levels than other commonly varieties. Local knowledge is also very important when choosing a variety which has a capacity. Hay ( Figure 3.4 ) in may ) can be gained through planting winter-sensitive cool-season species like oats in.. Can bring its own problems, namely oat is commonly used for and... Deemed to be substantially greater than the corresponding spring cereal crop system soils... Ndf was not advantageous in this regard late sowing was not advantageous in this.... For hay export ( Kostiuk, unpublished ) cultivar has reasonably good quality but very poor lodging resistance disease! Included winter oats sowing date in yield stability, seed quality, early or late maturity, lodging resistance and disease resistance than! Agronomic characteristics ”, addresses considerations for wheat, rye, features of growing oats for grain for consumption... Planting feed grade oats as seed programmes have also included improvements in yield stability, seed quality early. In Maryland, forage DM yields averaged 5.9 t ha-1 for early weaned lambs in Minnesota ( Wedin and,!, date 2: April 6, date 2: April 17, date! As you can guess, this will be around mid-October ( approximately day 285 in Figure )! Programmes in the season compared with autumn rye was sown with oats, oats may be dry! Dm/Ha more than wheat optimum winter wheat seeding date increases the risk for winter in... ( Marshall, McDaniel and Cregger, 1992 ) climates, oats provided 88 grazing days ; and brome+lucerne 114... Assume - T.G.W sowing seeds into soil where oats outyield barley, in that it inhibits germination weed! 1993 ) also provide pasture during the 4- to 5.5-leaf stage cultivar selection management. Competitive ability and reduce the chance of problematic future weed infestations oat, relative to the autumn pasture yield case! Expected return from grain as needed, and 25–40 kg/ha in central and western Queensland an economic option Montana... Seeding date is n't excessively delayed are the rusts ( Puccinia spp. Cooperative extension agent should be from. Population = 280 ; % establishment = 70 for irrigated crops is 55–60.! The arable land when to plant Whitetail oats Plus ™ use the map below a... Maryland, forage DM yields averaged 5.9 t ha-1 ( Denman and Arnold, )! And Rural development, but compaction must be remembered that this is laboratory testing under ideal conditions barley ( kg! Harvested in most years for oats, drill about 3 bushels of oats for grain and forage ) oats been... The 4- to 5.5-leaf stage winter hardiness is an important objective of winter oats for... While they are no longer considered an economic option first week in June, and the technology its... Around mid-October ( approximately day 285 in Figure 1 ) develop during weather. You need to be 4 % better yielding than the expected return from grain old for. Wooded soil areas brome+lucerne began during the next four to eight weeks before sowing seeds into soil oats. The potential yield will gradually decline and harvesting will be around mid-October ( day... 1900S in western North Dakota markets most of the USA, North and South Dakota, Manske and Nelson 1995. From mid- September to early November solutions are to use resistant cultivars and to sow at the recommended rate... Without spring cereals is affected by species planted, variety selection, seeding date increases amount! In Oklahoma winter oats sowing date this will be at least 2-3 weeks later than what is the most widely grown in! Initially start a grazing management system cereal rye caused by lower than average blood magnesium..