When the King became aware of the Duke's intrigue, he abruptly dismissed him and replaced him with de Fleury. He incorporated Corsica into France (1768), and negotiated the marriage of his grandson, the future Louis XVI with Marie Antoinette (1770). The civil justice system came to a halt. In India, the French colony at Pondicherry was surrounded by the British, and surrendered the following year. In early 1770 the Spanish governor of Buenos Aires sent five warships full of troops to the islands, ordering the British to leave. On the diplomatic front, he negotiated a "Family Pact" with the Bourbon monarch of Spain (1761); negotiated the Treaty of Paris in 1761, and completed the integration of Lorraine into France (1766) upon the death of the King's father-in-law Stanislaus I Leszczyński, Duke of Lorraine. She was thirty-three years younger than the King. He had no accredited Ambassadors in Poland, Prussia or Russia during most of the period, and stood by while Russia imposed its own candidate for King of Poland, and when Turkey and Russia went to war in 1768–70.. In this manner they had overthrown the financial system of John Law, had helped to procure the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1764, and had, for a time, disrupted the provincial administration of Brittany. He married Maria Leszczyńska (1703-1768) 4 September 1725 . However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April 1711. Bernier argued that these acts would have avoided the French Revolution, but his successor, Louis XVI, reversed his policies. Despite the protests, on 24 March 1730 Cardinal Fleury persuaded the King to issue a decree that Unigenitus was the law of France as well as that of the Church. Born in 1638, Louis XIV became king at age 4 following the death of his father, Louis XIII, and remained on the throne for the next 72 years. He was known popularly as Le Bien-aimé (the well-beloved). He was a critic of government regulation, and coined the term "bureaucracy" (literally "A government of desks"). The first-born daughter, called Madame Premiere, was married to the infant Philip of Spain, the second son of Philip of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. , E. H. Gombrich wrote in 2005, "Louis XV and Louis XVI, the Sun King's [Louis XIV] successors, were incompetent, and content merely to imitate their great predecessor's outward show of power. Damien was tortured to see if he had accomplices, and was tried before the Parlement of Paris, which had been the most vocal critic of the King. Other artists patronized by the King included Jean-Baptiste Oudry, Maurice Quentin de la Tour, Jean Marc Nattier, and the sculptor Edme Bouchardon. Although he proclaimed that he would henceforth rule without a chief minister, he was too indolent and lacking in self-confidence to coordinate the activities of his secretaries of state and give firm direction to national policy. The King personally removed Diderot from the list of those nominated for the Académie française, and in 1759 the Encyclopédie was formally banned.  Decades later, during the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution, the Comtesse was targeted by the Jacobins as a symbol of the hated old regime; she was guillotined on 8 December 1793. The possibility of his becoming King seemed very remote; the King's oldest son and heir, Louis Le Grand Dauphin, Louis's father and his elder surviving brother were ahead of him in the succession.  French and Bavarian armies quickly captured Linz and laid siege to Prague. The scene is described in Olivier Bernier. After 1737, she did not share her bed with the King. The proposition of Louis was surprisingly generous; in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Louis offered to return all of the territories he had conquered in the Netherlands to the Austrians, Maastricht to the Dutch, Nice and Savoy to the Sardinians, and Madras in India to the English. Thus Louis XIV's five-year-old great-grandson Louis, Duc d'Anjou, the younger son of the Duc de Bourgogne, and Dauphin upon the death of his grandfather, father and elder brother, succeeded to the throne and was to reign as Louis XV of France. The Council of Commerce stimulated trade, and French foreign maritime trade increased from 80 to 308 million livres between 1716 and 1748. Louis XV left Versailles to lead his armies in the Netherlands in person, and French field command was given to the German-born Maréchal Maurice de Saxe, a highly competent general. The King was deeply affected, but, strictly observing court protocol, he did not attend her funeral, because she was too far below his rank, and, though mourning, carried on court business as usual. Louis XV had several illegitimate children, although the exact number is unknown. "A Fractured Mirror: The Royal Portraiture of Louis XV and the Search for a Successful Image through Architecture, or, Versailles Is the Thing in Which We Will Catch the Character of the King." These were accompanied by new works on economics, finance, and commerce by the elder Mirabeau, François Quesnay and other scientific thinkers which undermined all of the standard assumptions of royal government, economics and fiscal policy.. Fleury sent his highest ranking general, Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, duc de Belle-Isle, the Maréchal de Belle-Isle, the grandson of Fouquet, the famous disgraced controller of finances of Louis XIV, as his ambassador to the Diet of Frankfurt, with instructions to avoid a war by supporting the candidacy of the Elector of Bavaria to the Austrian throne. Born on February 15, 1710, Louis XV was king of France for 59 years, from February 1715 until his death in May 1774. The elderly Cardinal Fleury had too little energy left to oppose this war. Never have a favorite or a prime minister. In January 1756, Louis sent an ultimatum to London, which was rejected by the British government. , Some sermons on his death in 1774 praised the monarch and went out of their way to excuse his faults. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. It was mostly funded by the government, and was one of the earliest banks to issue paper money, which he promised could be exchanged for gold. Without the provincial parliaments, the government was able enact new laws and taxes without opposition. Madame Pompadour herself accepted it as a preferable alternative to a rival at court, as she stated: "It is his heart I want! This was one of the seeds of resistance to the King's authority that was to turn into a Revolution less than thirty years later.  This was followed in February by an even more radical measure: the regional Parlements were replaced as the high courts of civil justice by six new regional high councils, to judge serious criminal and civil cases. In 1746, the French occupied Brussels.  Through her acquaintances with the nobility, she was invited to Versailles, where the King saw her and was immediately attracted to her. , Within Paris, the battle between the King and Parlement was fought over the status of the Hôpital Général, a semi-religious organization which operated six different hospitals and shelters in Paris, with a staff of some five thousand persons. , Two men had an enormous influence on the economic policies of the King. Instead, he wrote the Contrat Social calling for a new system based upon political and economic equality, published in 1762. The droit de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which eventually led to the French Revolution in 1789. ", The Queen was deeply affected by the death of the Dauphin in 1765, then the death of her father in 1766, and then her daughter-in-law.  This statue was located on the Place Louis XV and was torn down during the Revolution. The faculty of the Sorbonne, then primarily a theological college and a center of Jansenism, demanded clarification from the government. At the age of five, he succeeded his great grandfather Louis XIV as king of France. Apart from this reform, Louis XV’s long reign had been marked by a decline in the crown’s moral and political authority, as well as by reverses in foreign and military affairs. Popular legends at the time described it as a kind of harem, organized by Madame de Pompadour, where a group of women were kidnapped and kept for the King's pleasure. Louis was born at Versailles on 15 February 1710. One of his chief courtiers, Duford de Cheverny, wrote afterwards: "it was easy to see that when members of the court congratulated him on his recovery, he replied, 'yes, the body is going well', but touched his head and said, 'but this goes badly, and this is impossible to heal.' " Saxe went on to win further victories at Rocoux (1746) and Lauffeld (1747). , De Gournay and Quesnay proposed in particular the liberalization of agricultural markets, which were strictly controlled, to encourage greater production, competition and lower prices. Young Louis' failings were attributed to inexperience and manipulation by his handlers. The censors of Louis XV at first permitted these publications; the first volume of the Encyclopédie received official permission because the government censors believed it was purely a collection of scientific articles.  A list of 99 princesses was prepared, among them being Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, Barbara of Portugal, Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark, Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine, Enrichetta d'Este and the Duke's own sisters Henriette Louise de Bourbon and Élisabeth Alexandrine de Bourbon. After the Bourbon Restoration, Louis XVIII accorded him a pension of 6,000 francs from the Civil List, which was augmented to 20,000 francs in May 1821. Roi à 5 ans à la mort de son arrière-grand-père Louis XIV (1er septembre 1715), il est confié à Louis Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, surintend… Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In addition, at the age of fifteen (1777), she received the further amount of 12,000 livres as a renewed pension. The King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, Augustus II, was dying, and his official heir was Stanislaus I Leszczyński, the father of the Queen of France. On 18 May, Fleury assembled a new alliance combining France, Prussia, Spain and Bavaria, later joined by Poland and Sardinia. I owe it to God and to my people. For du Barry to be presented at Court, she had to be formally presented by a member of the nobility. Only the two oldest daughters were raised at Versailles; the others were sent away to be raised at the Abbey of Fontevrault. , Louis declared war on Great Britain on 9 June 1756, and success seemed certain. The King was offended by her refusal and thereafter never shared her bed. Thereafter, Britain and Prussia held the upper hand, tying down the French army in the German states along the Rhine. Render justice upon yourselves!...There is in the entire world no judicial court which has ever tried to share the power of the sovereign." In 1770 the island formally became a Province of France. The king died in 1774, hated as much as Louis XIV had been. Louis's formal style was "Très haut, très puissant et très excellent Prince Louis XV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Most high, most potent and most excellent Prince Louis XV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". The Parlements also stood resolutely in the way of financial reform. On one issue in particular Voltaire took the side of Louis XV; when the King suppressed the parlements of nobles, demanded that all classes be taxed equally, and removed the charges which plaintiffs had to pay in order to have their cases heard. The Pope, the Empress of Austria, and King George II, with whom France was at war, sent messages hoping for his swift recovery. Trends in 20th century French historiography, especially the Annales School, have deprecated biography and ignored the King. Explaining the decision later to the Duke de Broglie, the King wrote, "The principles of the Choiseuls are too contrary to religion, and therefore to royal authority.". Biographer Michel Antoine wrote that the King's remark "was a manner of evoking, with his scientific culture and a good dose of black humor, this sinister year beginning with the assassination attempt by Damiens and ending with the Prussian victory". The fluctuation of grain prices would eventually become a factor in the French Revolution.. Many of his subjects prayed for his recovery during his serious illness in Metz in 1744. Then Louis XV is suddenly taken ill. The death of Augustus on 1 February 1733, with two heirs claiming the throne, launched the War of the Polish Succession. Russia and Prussia, occupied with the division of Poland, protested but did not intervene.. In 1732 the coalition came into direct conflict with France over the succession to the Polish throne. The final treaty was signed in Paris on 10 February 1763. Because his official ministers knew nothing of le secret, Louis’s foreign policy became paralyzed with confusion. Louis XV was the third son of the Duke of Burgundy and his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, and Anne Marie d'Orléans.  When Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. Voltaire, describing the affair, wrote, "Never before has such a small affair caused such a great emotion of the spirit." The military successes of the War of the Austrian Succession inclined the French public to overlook Louis' adulteries, but after 1748, in the wake of the anger over the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, pamphlets against the king's mistresses were widely distributed and read. Louis XV, King of France, was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of Louis, duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adelaide, princess of Savoy. On 27 April 1732, the Archbishop of Paris threatened to excommunicate any member of the Church who read the Jansenist journal, Nouvelles Ecclésiastiques. Many of the hospital staff and officials were Jansenists, while the board of directors of the hospital included many prominent members of the Parlement of Paris. The Treaty was quickly negotiated and signed by all the parties in September and October 1748. In April 1711, Louis Louis Le Grand Dauphin suddenly died, making Louis XV’s father, the Duke of Burgundy, the new Dauphin. The King walked up the steps to his rooms at the Trianon, where he found he was bleeding seriously. Tension grew between the Duke of Bourbon and Cardinal de Fleury over the King's favor. The preliminary negotiations opened at Palace of Fontainebleau on 3 November 1762, and ended hostilities between Great Britain, France and Spain. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. The German-born British King, George II, who was also the Elector of Hanover, joined the war on the side of Austria and personally took charge of his soldiers fighting the French in Germany. The opposition to Unigenitus was particularly strong among the members of the Parlement de Paris, the assembly of the nobles. When the King insisted that de Fleury was to be included in all meetings between himself and the Duke of Bourbon, the Duke was infuriated and began to undermine de Fleury's position at court. Without courtship or ceremony he made her his mistress and raised her to the rank of Duchess. They became known as "The Triumvirate". For the next twenty years she was the King's confidante and advisor, helping him choose or demote ministers.  Montesquieu and Voltaire published their first works, and the Age of Enlightenment in France quietly began.. Once again the King yielded to Madame de Pomapdour and her allies; the new decrees were withdrawn, Bertin was moved to a different position, the tax rolls were not enlarged, and no new taxes were collected; the debt remained.. In the council and circles of government, he was the leader of the philosophe faction, which included Madame de Pompadour, which sought to appease the Parlements and the Jansenists. Note: Both children were registered as daughters of Louis Auguste, Old Official, and citizen Lucie, both non-existent persons. But his brother, who was always favored, died aged nine, when Louis … He was responsible for creating the first school for engineers in France at Mézières (1749–50); thanks to the trained engineers, France had the finest system of roads and bridges in Europe. The King went into mourning and for a time turned to religion for consolation. Louis XV (1710-1774) was king of France form 1715 to 1774. Acknowledging that he was committing adultery, Louis refused thereafter to go to confession and to take the sacrament. A French army occupied the Duchy of Lorraine and then Alsace, while another crossed the Alps and captured Milan on 3 November, handing it over to the King of Sardinia. At the same time he established a large zone around Paris, where grain was reserved exclusively for feeding the Parisians, and established a cap on the grain price, which, if it was passed, would cause the exports to cease. ", The Parlements were assemblies of nobles in Paris and older regions of France, whose members served as magistrates and judged civil cases. Due to Choiseul's sole focus on a war with Britain, he had completely ignored the rest of Europe. Louis, Dauphin of France (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765) was the elder and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska.He had a younger brother, Philippe, who died as a toddler. , The Comte d'Argenson served as the Minister of War from 1743 until 1747. She remained close to the King until her death in 1764. She proposed a secret alliance between Austria and France, to meet the threats of the growing power of Prussia, which was still formally an ally of France, and Britain. , The Duc de Choiseul devoted all of his considerable energy and talents to preparing a new war against Britain. It used art as propaganda on a grand scale. , The policy of freeing grain prices was effective in good years, and resulted in increased trade and lower prices, but during years with poor harvests; 1766, 1767 and 1768, prices went up. At the age of four years and eight months, he was, according to the laws of the kingdom, not only the master but … The King was attended by six physicians, six surgeons, each of whom took his pulse and gave his diagnosis. Most of the members of the Parlement of Paris were on a virtual strike, refusing to render justice or approve the King's decrees. The Jesuits had already been expelled from Portugal and its colony of Brazil in 1759, because of conflicts with the government and church hierarchy there.  The King announced that he was giving his silver service to the mint, to be melted down and made into money. In addition to the existing naval arsenals in Toulon, Brest and Rochefort, he opened two more in Marseille (1762) and Lorient (1764). The monarchy survived—for a while—but Louis XV left his successor with a damaging legacy of popular discontent. In March 1764, the Parlement of Navarre in Pau, the smallest province, refused to accept the taxation authority of the Grand Council of the King. Orry managed, in the last two years of Fleury's government, to balance the royal budget, an accomplishment never again repeated during the rest of the reign. This time the Parlement members met but refused to discuss the Hospital. Following the doctrines of Quesnay and de Gournay, Louis's controller of finances, Henri Bertin, created a new Society of Agriculture and an Agricultural Committee within the government, comparable to those existing to support commerce. Her appearance at the Court scandalized the Duke de Choiseul, but pleased the enemies of the Duke within the Court. Choiseul had taken over direction of the French navy as well as the army in October 1761, and he pressed for an offensive to bring the war to a successful end. Troisième fils de Louis, duc de Bourgogne, et de Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie, il porte le titre de duc d'Anjou puis celui de Dauphin à la mort de son frère aîné Louis (1712). He first won assurances from Britain and Holland that they would not interfere in the war, while lining up alliances with Spain and the King of Sardinia in exchange for pieces of the Habsburg Empire. The peasants worked till they dropped and citizens were forced to pay huge taxes. The Parlements of the provinces began to quarrel with the Parlement of Paris over which more truly represented the nation. The members of the family, particularly the Dauphin and Marie-Antoinette, were asked to leave, since they had not already had the illness, and had no immunity. She was promoted to Duchess in 1752, and Dame of the Queen's Palace in 1756, and was an important patron of music and the arts, as well as religious establishments. One of the first priorities of the Duke of Bourbon was to find a bride for the King, to assure the continuity of the monarchy, and especially to prevent the succession to the throne of the Orléans branch of the family, the rivals of his branch. Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, duc de Belle-Isle, Charles Emmanuel Marie Magdelon de Vintimille, Louis Marie Jacques Amalric de Narbonne-Lara, http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/frarms.htm, Prince Louis Auguste of France, Duke of Berry, Scholarly bibliography by Colin Jones (2002), Provisional Government of the French Republic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_XV&oldid=1000271124, People of the Regency of Philippe d'Orléans, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Agathe Louise de Saint-Antoine de Saint-André (Paris, 20 May 1754 – Paris, 6 September 1774). 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