In 1954 CE, Michael Ventris demonstrated that the Linear B script was a form of Greek. Took over after the . Palaces were filled with hundreds of rooms. What is known about Linear A is due to a comparison with a later script called Linear B which was used after the Mycenaean invasion and referred to a language more easily deciphered that was similar to Greek. The remains of Minoan culture influenced the Mycenaeans who adopted many of their clothing styles. It was natural, like other subsequent island nations, that they should become heavily engaged in trade overseas. Mycenaean culture included elaborate burial practices, but only for the wealthy aristocracy. Besides, princesses from other lands were also sent to Egypt and it is important to note that the Egyptians did not export their princesses to foreign lands. In the Levant, Solomon’s greatest skill may have been his diplomacy which may also account for the worship of Canaanite gods in Israel. Some Cretans took their skills and their burgeoning culture with them to neighboring islands, and would eventually export their way of life to mainland Europe in Greece. Although the legend of Troy had been around for millenniums, it was the excavation conducted by Heinrich Schliemann (1822–1890) that linked Mycenae to Troy. They took over the government and imposed some of their own forms, which were far more militaristic than the old Minoans. For example, the true name of the sphinx is Hor-am-Akhet (Horus on the Horizon). Life on Crete The pyramids and sphinx of Egypt were over 1000 years old and Egypt was in its 18th dynasty. This aspect of the Phoenicians was beneficial to Egypt and the region. Social Studies, 22.06.2019 15:30, kezin. There is much debate about the role of females in Minoan culture. Trade with great powers had ancillary effect. The Mycenaeans lived on the island of Crete after they took it over from the Minoans, … What do these myths tell us about the origins of their civilizations? Therefore, the Athenians could boast that they were the descendants of the first inhabitants of Greece. In Greek myth, the primogenitor was Hellen the man who should not be confused with the female Helen of Troy (The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships) and she was the cause of the Trojan War. Since the Egyptians did not use vowels Minos and Menes are structurally the same. There is also evidence that strongly suggests that the denizens on the island of Crete may have been in contact with the Egyptians as early as the Old Kingdom. It is also interesting to note, that the collapse of the Mycenaean culture corresponds to an overall decline in the eastern Mediterranean and the first mention of the state of Israel. Something was threatening the civilization. Many historians associate Hyksos with the Jews in Egypt at the time of Joseph and the Exodus. Now known as the Thera Eruption, it was so great that earthquakes destroyed buildings and structures in much of the surrounding region. Recently, much has been made about the tradition and influence of Western Civilization on the world. dark ages. a cataclysmic volcanic explosion occurred on the island of Strongphyle (Thera) north of Crete. The devastation must have laid waste to much of the Minoan merchant marine, because it was not long after that the Mycenaeans invaded Crete. Destruction. Geography | The Minoans, who were known particularly for their extensive trade and dominance of the sea, existed from about 27th century B.C. Also significant is the profound influence that the Egyptians had over the entire Mediterranean region particularly the Levant during the Mycenaean era. According to the Greeks, the original inhabitants of Greece were the Achaeans and the Ionians, who fought in the Trojan War. The Iliad and the Odyssey, however, are only two parts of an eight-part known as “the Epic Cycle” of the Trojan War that emanates from a much older oral tradition. Much of what we know about the Minoans could be attributed to the hard work and diligence of one man, Sir Arthur Evans (1851–1941). When the Minoan culture disappeared in about 1600 B.C.E., for reasons archeologists still have yet to discover, the Mycenaean culture began to flourish on mainland Greece and invaded Crete, where they encountered the Minoans. It is believed that the writing was read left to right across the page and referred to syllables, usually a consonant followed by a vowel. They built large trade ships and traveled to places like Egypt where they traded goods like olive oil and wine for metals and ivory. Possession of writing was absolutely essential for enforcing contracts and keeping track of property. Meyer contends that the name Minoan assigned to the denizens of Crete is a misnomer and the real name of those inhabitants is Keftiu. The culture made a lasting impression on later Greeks in the Archaic and Classical periods, most tangibly in their myths of Bronze Age heroes like Achilles and Odysseus and their exploits in the Trojan War . The island could not bully great states such as Egypt or Mesopotamia so the Cretans relied heavily on diplomacy. The Greek ruler Themistocles knee it was a temporary victory he then started to build up the Greek navy. The second: The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence (1991) and the last: The Linguistic Evidence (2006), In addition to these three volumes he wrote, Black Athena Writes Back (2001), which was a response to his critics. The Cretan culture was called Minoan from the legendary king of Crete Minos and the Mycenaean culture earned its name from the town of Mycenae in the Peloponnese. Both Minoan and Mycenaean primogenitors are princesses from foreign nations. The Mycenaeans had a syllabic script we now call Linear B because there is evidence that it developed from Minoan writing. The Archaic period, however, was an era of transformation; and the Greeks of that period looked back to the Mycenaean era (between 1600–1200 BCE) for their history and legends. There is no doubt that Greece is the cornerstone of the Western world and there is also no doubt that the Greek accomplishments were significant. Also recorded are noble warriors such as Memnon, the Ethiopian king, who was memorialized in art and poem. However, to the Greeks and later the Romans, the Trojan War was real history of a Heroic age. On the island of Crete between 2000 and 1700 B.C. However, it is known that the Mycenaeans conquered or displaced the Minoan empire by the 15th century B.C., borrowing or adapting much of Minoan culture as its own. Tholos Tombs. Meyers, however, was the exact opposite, leading from the Egyptians directly to the Minoans (Keftiu). Furthermore, Herodotus wrote in his history centuries later: “The Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris (Senusret). Many of the paintings, sculptures, and pottery have been found intact. During this time, the Phoenicians represented Egyptian power in the Levant. Now it is important to note that Minos is the son of Zeus begotten in Crete by Princess Europa. Moreover, according to Greek myths, the founders of Mycenae were the progeny of Princess Andromeda who was the daughter of an Ethiopian king. These two civilizations have left indelible traces across Greece and a nexus to earlier civilizations of Africa and the Near East. However, it took on a flavor all its own. The Mycenaeans were influenced by the earlier Minoan … He had three sons Dorus, Aeolus and Xuthus from which the main Greek ethnic groups originated. The Mycenaeans were able to take land by force in the Aegean region, but they eventually expanded their influence directly to Anatolia and Egypt through trade, incorporating their culture into the Bronze Age sy… They lived in … Minoan civilization, Bronze Age civilization of Crete that flourished from about 3000 BCE to about 1100 BCE. Their language was not Indo-European so they likely had not come from the north or north-west. Additionally, while the Mycenaeans were discovered to have had a wide variety of weaponry suitable to battle, Minoan weapons were cerem… It is also important to note that during the Mycenaean period, the Phoenicians were under the Egyptian sphere of influence which gave them access to Egyptian expertise and products that they modified to make goods of which the Greeks emulated. They worked in the bureaucracy. From the Egyptians the Cretans probably learned writing, which originally took the form of hieroglyphics and later became a more phonetic form, which is referred to today as Linear A. The objects found during excavations, such as seals, scarabs and rings show that the Cretans were in contact with Egypt. The mountains of Greece also provided precious metals like silver and gold to the city-states. Their activities and raiding were wide ranging. It was a great place to grow olives and grapes, commodities which were easily exportable. It is during these travels that the Minoans came in contact with the Mycenaeans on the mainland. However, they were powerful in their own right and masters of the sea. Perhaps there was increased fighting among the Mycenaean cities, or perhaps there was a foreign invasion from the north of Greece. The Middle Kingdom was founded by Mentuhotep II and reigned from around (2050–1710) and was the most dominant nation in the region. They imitated the Minoans, especially in their trading activities. In fact, Ethiopia was the place where the gods came to feast, and the Greeks often referred to them as the blameless race. Yet the people out-grew the limited resources of their island; to maintain their standard of living they had to reach out. The Minoans and Mycenaean civilizations both resided in present-day Greece, while the Minoans based their civilization on the island of Crete, and the Mycenaeans on mainland Greece. Explanation: The Mycenaean civilization flourished in the Late Bronze Age, from the fifteenth to the thirteenth century BCE and broadened its influence not just all through the Peloponnese in Greece yet in addition over the Aegean, specifically, on Crete and the Cycladic islands. The Mycenaean Civilization: Bronze Age Greece. the Minoans developed the first civilization to arise in Europe. Answer: Minoan cultures influenced Mycenaean culture. The presence of Ethiopians at the Trojan War may shed some light on the demographics during the Mycenean era. This can be largely attributed to their trading ethos and the fact that massive resources were not used by the military, which may have been largely paid for by the trading activities of the naval vessels themselves. Both products were uniquely Egyptian, yet they entered Greece, not from the Egyptians, but through the Phoenicians. About a millennium before the Common Era, the Mycenaean culture grew weak and was conquered by invaders from the north known as Dorians. During the Minoan Civilization ‘tholos tombs’ were built and a series of them were excavated at Knossos in the 1960’s. Of all the societies of the ancient world, the Minoans were probably the most affluent. Just as geography was a deciding factor in the rise of the Minoans, it would also play a decisive and dramatic role in their downfall. Mycenaean Greece (or the Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.It represents the first advanced and distinctively Greek civilization in mainland Greece with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art, and writing system. Around 1200 BC, we have evidence that the Mycenaeans increased the size of the walls around their cities. Yet their influence was remembered in the Homeric poems that have lasted for ages. Fought the Trojans at Troy in the . This was a tradition that migrated to Greece in the form of religious festivals in honor of their heroes. There is perhaps a nexus between the Mycenean myths told by the Greeks, the stories in the Bible and history as recorded by the Egyptians. The story of civilization is the story of humankind; Western Civilization, although sometimes used as a euphemism for European superiority, is just one piece of this evolving story. Minoan palaces, for example, had open designs and lavish courtyards. Mycenaean palaces, on the other hand, were constructed with high stone walls and other clearly defensive attributes, signifying the perennial presence of danger. The Mycenaeans (Greek people) on islands and the mainland of Europe to the north had seen the grandeur of Crete. Before the rise of Mycenaean civilization in mainland Greece, Minoan civilization flourished on the large island of Crete. Economic activity and limited size of the military brought rich rewards to every level of society.1 Even the poorest appears to have lived in multi-roomed dwellings. In Egyptian mythology, the holy bull, Apis, was linked with Osiris. … Minoan art was remarkable because, for the most part, it did not seem to have religious or practical significance. She was raped by Zeus in the form of a bull. It is likely that the ruling house of Mycene was connected to the Minoan trade network. The Minoans were a maritime nation traveling to Egypt, the Near East, the islands of the Aegean and Southern Greece. The most common theory for the rapid collapse is a cataclysmic event such as a volcanic eruption. However, about 1500 B.C. The Greeks became known as Hellenes and Greece as Hellas. The influence of the Minoan civilization outside Crete has been seen in the evidence of valuable Minoan handicraft items on the Greek mainland. Their craftsmen became experts in jewelry and pottery. Originating in the late Mycenaean period, the Greek epic outlasted the downfall of the typically heroic-age culture (c. 1100 bce) and maintained itself through the “Dark Age” to reach a climax in the Homeric poems by the close of the Geometric period (900–750 bce). https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15165017, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4390535, The Princess Who Married the World’s Richest Boy, Spirit Scripts: Japan’s mysterious outcast alphabets, The Englishwoman Who Joined a Harem (sort of): Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s The Turkish Letters…, The Fascinating World of the Amazon Warrior Women. For example, the frescos found on Crete show the importance of cult games in Minoan life. The Island of Crete has a very moderate climate and the soil is fertile. They were the Dorians, the Aeolians, the Achaeans and the Ionians. There were other Mycenaean cities that grew into major city-states during the height of Ancient Greece such as Thebes and Athens. Therefore little time or treasure was spent in fortification. The connection between the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, the Trojan War and the rise of Israel (or the possibility that the Philistines were perhaps responsible for the decline of the Canaanites) is seldom mentioned. C. Mycenaean culture was influenced by the Minoans. World History. In 480 BC Darius's son Xerxes sent a larger force of 20,000 soldiers and nearly 1000 ships. Furthermore, Diodorus Siculus claims that the Minotaur lived in the labyrinthos, a term which he also applies to an Egyptian tomb which he claims Daidalos saw in Egypt and imitated in Crete for Minos. Yet the Mycenaeans went one step further, engaging frequently in piracy. However, for reasons unknown but often speculated, the Mycenaean culture collapsed around 1200 BCE and the period between 1200 BCE and about 800 BCE is often referred to as the Dark Ages of the Greeks. It is not known from where the Minoans first came to settle on the Island of Crete. The interconnections antedate not only the earliest Hebrew and Greek writings, but also the earliest texts of Sumer and Egypt. Thus, they became a mercantile people. They may have seen something of civilization before landing on Crete. Origins | The Mesara type of tholos is peculiar since it links to the Mycenaean tholos as they both contain a ‘dromos’. A tidal wave was launched that destroyed much of the northern coast of Crete that may have included the governing structure at Knossos. Sea traders- passed on Minoan, egyptian, and Mesopotamian influences. The word Ethiopian is the combination of two Greek words burnt and skin and thus does not only refer to a specific nation but rather to an ethnic or racial group located in other lands. Between 1900 BCE and 1500 BCE, Crete was the western-most segment of the European Bronze Age world and was connected to the entire eastern Mediterranean. Mycenaean tholos tombs have been found on mainland Greece as well as on Crete. a. aid harms the local economy creating the need for more aid. Some of the legends, particularly the ones told by Hesiod, resemble the stories previously told by the Phoenicians. This is different than art in Egypt or Mesopotamia where rulers were set on memorializing themselves through art and statuary, and priests of depicting gods and ceremonies. The records from Knossos during the last excavation were recorded in Linear B, not in Linear A which indicates that Greek-speaking Mycenaeans occupied Crete in its last phase. until the Mycenaeans defeated them and took over (Biers, 1980, 27). This Minoan tradition can also be found in Mycenaean Greece in the mystery plays and festivals. John Chadwick points out that at least six centuries lie between the earliest settling of proto-Greek speakers in Hellas and the earliest Linear B inscriptions, during which concepts and practices will have fused with indigenous beliefs, and— if cultural influences in material culture reflect influences in religious beliefs— … Yet the Mycenaeans went one … The Dorians. These aspects of Minoan culture were so powerful that they are reflected in curious Greek myths, including that of the Labyrinth and the Minotaur. The Mycenaeans traded with Crete; Minoan objects have been found in the famous royal tombs at Mycenae that perhaps span the century from 1600 to 1500 B.C. Washington State University on Minoan History. Although it is well accepted that the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures were the primogenitors of the Greeks, they are also linked to the continuous cultural and linguistic streams of Ancient Egypt. Their ships seem to have combined the functions of both trader and fighter, making their navy efficient and flexible. His breakthrough was helpful in the dating of the Mycenaean culture. There are definite sources of influence on early Greek culture to be found in the history of the second millennium, for which we have significant archaeological evidence and even some written documents. In 1900 CE, Evans came upon a building with nearly twelve hundred rooms. Now going back to Mycenaean burial, through the rich finds found in the shaft graves, … Mycenaeans. The Minoans did not speak Greek but had extensive contact with Egypt and the Near East, particularly the Phoenicians who were also maritime people, and they passed this culture to the Mycenaeans. The Mycenaeans. However, Egypt’s conservatism can serve as a link between the evolution and cultural diffusion of its great empire — to the rising age of the Greeks. Some scholars believe that Israel was able to establish a temporary state because of the chaos and the weakness of its surrounding neighbors. the mycenaeans were influenced my the minoans culture because the mycenaeans built palaces on hilltops, just like the minoans did. It is most apparent that Greek myths represent distorted memories of the Greek Mycenaean era. Depictions of women show them on a par with men rather than subservient, and to even have engaged in some of the more dangerous sports to which the Minoans seemed devoted. After this time, there was a resurgence of an independent Phoenician state that established colonies all over the Mediterranean. Its name derives from Minos, either a dynastic title or the name of a particular ruler of Crete who has a place in Greek legend. Scholars believe that most of the thousands of documents uncovered (often in the form of clay tablets in the manner of the Mesopotamians) were records of economic transactions. These were Greeks from the mainland that occupied Crete for three generations and during that time absorbed, as the Romans would do later: the knowledge of a greater civilization now in decline. This is mainly because of the difficulty in translating Minoan texts, but may also stem from a relative equality among individuals and classes that may have discouraged monuments to specific great figures. Some of their movements were even recorded by the Hittites. Because of Egypt’s conservatism, time seems to culturally standstill thus providing an excellent reference to compare and discern the evolution of the Hellenistic culture. The profundity of documents and the intricacy of palace complexes indicates that the government probably had a strong bureaucratic component. The debate over the origins of Greek civilization began in earnest with the release of two seminal works: Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop’s (pronounced Jope) The African Origins of Civilization, Myth or Reality (1974) and Dr. Martin Bernal’s Black Athena thesis composed in three volumes: The first was The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785–1985 published in 1987. The others are as follows: the Cypria, which focuses on the first nine years of the war; the Aethiopis, which focuses on Troy’s alliance with Ethiopia, the Little Iliad on the Trojan Horse, the Iliupersis, on the sack of Troy, the Nortoris, on the return of the Greek heroes and the Telegony a continuation of the Odyssey. Laid during the Minoan plays just before the rise of Mycenaean civilization, who were the precursors Greek. Were powerful in their trading activities certainly would have exposed them to Egyptian culture to spread across the during... In this regard, they were the Minoans culture because the language is unfamiliar. 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